The name "Jharkhand" means "The Land of Forests". The 28th state of the Indian Union was brought into existence by the Bihar reorganization Act on November 15, 2000 - the birth anniversary of the legendary Bhagwan Birsa Munda. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 30,778 sq mi (79,710 km2). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka is sub capital while Jamshedpur is the largest and the biggest industrial city of the state. Some of the other major cities and industrial centres are Dhanbad, Bokaro and Hazaribagh.
State AnimalElephant (Elephas maximus indicus)
State BirdKoel (Eudynamys scolopaceus)
State TreeSaal (Shorea robusta)
State FlowerPalash (Butea monosperma)
Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.
Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:
- Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area
- Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumri Telaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hill
- Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad
- Black soil, found in Rajmahal area
- Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum
There are three well-defined seasons in Jharkhand. The cold-weather season, from November to February, is the most pleasant part of the year. Lowest temperature in Jharkhand lies between -5°C to 0°C. High temperatures in Ranchi in December usually rise from about 50 °F (10 °C) into the low 70 °F (low 20 °C) daily. The hot-weather season lasts from March to mid-June. May, the hottest month, is characterized by daily high temperatures in the upper 90 °F (about 37 °C) and low temperatures in the mid-70 °F (mid-20 °C). Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September that accounts for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state.